Thursday, August 22, 2019
Internet Security Essay The key techniques to the most affordable website security would be the casual features of the website for the purpose of safeguarding the website content and the transactions that are to be made for fulfilling the ecommerce objectives of the website. The following can be credited to the diverse ways to secure the website and customer information for the Ã¢â¬Å"Grandmas TreatsÃ¢â¬ website: Web content security: It forms the greater part of the security as they are aimed at non-representation or illegal presentation of false content that a user is not expected to see. The term cross site scripting (or XSS) is often used in conjunction with the web content and links that are to be secured for a website. Acunetix (2007) own product Acunetix Web Vulnerability Scanner is easily downloadable and comes free. Using that one could scan their website for any such flaws. Directory traversal attacks: The directory traversal attacks are quite common where the links are traversed to a very different path where the information flows to the hackers. It is due to the malfunction of the codes at the client and server sides. The code efficiency and link path requires to be checked periodically so that one is able to redesign and test the system for any malfunction. SQL injection: It is another method where intruders are capable to draw information from one website using SQL languages to illegally fetch customerÃ¢â¬â¢s data for obtaining their financial information or to manipulate information for wrong use. The website must be checked periodically for such incidents and must also make sure that customer records are encrypted using 128 bit security layers at the database side. The database security must be checked for getting sure that no such activity is evident. The customerÃ¢â¬â¢s financial information would be encrypted to hide it from easy access from hackers. E-commerce transactions security: The use of SSL 3. 0 makes sure that all vulnerabilities regarding the tapping of information so that ones purchases are safe in all respects. The use of this protocol makes sure that a secured channel is followed for communication between the client communicating clients. The use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) is important and can be enabled for any website for securing the communication to the communicating clients. IETF (2007) explains that TLS composes of point to point authentication techniques and communications privacy over the internet strengthening the encryption. 1. Web server checks and database security checks: The periodic checks are done to put a check on performance of the website and database usage. All the relevant links and database security is checked for overall assurance. 2. Database backup: The database backup plans must be devised accordingly for keeping the records safe to protect against unforeseen disasters (Navathe, 2002). These simple tips would be helpful for the website to take care of the affordable needs for security and customer data protection so that one is able to safely carry out transactions over the internet. References Acunetix (2007). Web Site Security Center: Check Implement Web Site Security. Retrieved 16, December 2007 from http://www.acunetix.com/websitesecurity/
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission In Bangladesh Economics Essay Atmosphere is a global public good and all nations around the globe dump pollution in the atmosphere at zero cost. As a result the concentrations of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) have been increasing in the atmosphere leading to its market failure. The four major components of GHG are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and F-gases. In targeting GHG emission, main focus is given to CO2 since it constitutes a large share of the GHG . The rising concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are bringing considerable changes to climate for example rise in global mean temperature by 0.4-0.8Ã °C and average annual rate in sea level by 1-2 mm in the last century . Reducing GHG emissions in Bangladesh Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of the threat to climate change. IPCC report suggests, a one-metre rise in sea levels would flood 29846 sq km (total area of Bangladesh is 147570 sq km) of Bangladesh and create 14.8 million people landless . Most of the land of Bangladesh is less than 20 feet high from the sea level. Bangladeshs population is 150.5 million in 2011 and per capita greenhouse emission is 0.3 in 2008 . Bangladesh is currently contributing to global carbon emissions by an amount slightly less than its share in world GDP . CO2 emissions per capita (Tonnes) Year Figure 1: GHGs emission by Bangladesh, India, China and Pakistan Source: Although Bangladesh has low GHG emission, its paying higher prices for the consequences of climate change associated with higher GHG concentration in the atmosphere. The frequency of natural disasters has rapidly increased. Bangladesh has been always arguing in favour of reduced global GHG emission in climate negotiations. Bangladeshs own GHG emission is also showing an increasing trend. There is a projection of Bangladeshs greenhouse gas emission under different growth scenarios up to 2050: Source: Figure 2 The vulnerability of Bangladesh for climate change demands interventions to reduce GHG emission from her own end. There may be different policy intervention instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emission like creation of property rights, market based incentives (a tax, emission trading scheme), different forms of regulation, subsidies etc. When taking any policy, it is important to evaluate the policy under certain standards like environmental effectiveness, cost effectiveness, distributional impacts and institutional feasibilities. Two proposed policy interventions to reduce GHG emissions in Bangladesh are: Regulation (setting renewable energy target to reduce carbon emission) Regulations are most common form of interventions to reduce GHG emission like renewable energy target, light bulbs, specifying production technology or input to use or not to use etc. Market based incentives to reduce pollution (tax on carbon emission) Market based interventions create a price incentive to internalise the cost of externality and correct the market failure. Regulation : Renewable energy target A tax on carbon emission Regulations can be imposed by considering the particular circumstances of a firm or industry. For example, it is possible to set a renewable energy target for a firm consuming more energy after a limit. A tax on carbon emission is uniform in nature. For example, two companies electricity generating and transport, have to pay same amount of tax on each tonne of GHG emission. The connection between regulations and GHG emission outcome is more direct. So the outcome of regulation on GHG emission can be predicted with some degree of certainty. Tax gives assurance about the marginal cost of reducing pollution but the amount of pollution reduction is uncertain under taxation. Regulation requires reliable and accurate information because abatement cost will possibly rise when the regulators do not have accurate information. Sometimes tax is more complex compared to regulations. In setting the tax rate, knowledge of all functions, MPC, MEC and MPB, or MB and MC is required. Regulations require changes over time as MC function changes with changes in production technology, input costs, and product demand. MC curve shifts over time with changes in production technology, input costs, and product demand requiring changes in tax. Regulations are unlikely to be lowest cost. Tax allows the producers to find least cost or cost effective way of reducing pollution. Regulation does not generate government revenue but creates transaction cost for monitoring and implementing those. Tax generates government revenue. Regulations are appropriate for developing countries as they build initial capacity by bringing new technology e.g. solar energy, wind power etc. Tax interventions are appropriate for developed countries as they require more institutional feasibility and sensitive monitoring system Regulation adds implicit extra production cost. Tax adds explicit extra production cost and often politically unpopular and may assist rent seeking by lobby groups. Regulations are imposed by targeting goods and services which emit more carbon. Tax on carbon gives signal to producers and consumers about which goods and services produce more carbon and which produce less or none. Therefore, consumers and producers can plan to shift from high-carbon products and technologies to low-carbon products and technologies. Under regulation, firms do not have incentives to reduce pollution after meeting the regulation target. Under tax, firm have incentives. Renewable energy target The current potential demand of energy in Bangladesh is 5569 MW where supply is less than 4000 MW . The economy of Bangladesh has been growing at a rate of 6-7 percent from last few years . These are causing rise in energy demand which in turn increases GHG emission. Bangladeshs GHG emission from energy sector is relatively low as most of the power is generated from natural gas which causes low carbon emission. The current contribution of renewable energy is 0.5 percent. The government is planning to increase the share of renewable sources in total power generation by 5% in 2015 and 10% in 2020 . Source: Figure 3: Power Generation Fuel Mix of Bangladesh in 2009 But as the reserve of natural gas has been depleting very quickly and the demand of energy is increasing, dependency on fossil fuel and coal based energy is increasing. As a result it is expected that the GHG emission will rise. Natural gas contributed 64 percent of CO2 emission and petroleum products contributed 36 percent emission of Bangladesh during 2008-2009 . Efficiency of regulation There will be an efficiency gain for regulation if the regulation is implemented in cost effective way. Price ($) KW electricity S= S + Regulatory Cost S= MPC Regulatory Cost MC MB Welfare Gain 0 = em Reduction of pollution Figure 4: Market effects of regulation Quantity of coal and fuel produced electricity P P Q e* Q D=MPB=MSB Price and cost per unit pollution As the government is trying to increase the share of renewable energy in total energy, its imposing some regulatory costs on coal and fuel produced electricity. In figure 4, MPC=S curve shifts to S due to the regulatory cost. The amount of electricity produced by coal and fuel has decreased from Q to Q while price has increased from P to P. In the second part, initially at the market solution, reduction of pollution is 0. Due to the regulation, the amount of pollution reduction increases from 0 to e*. Optimal level of pollution reduction will be at the intersection of MB and MC curve. From 0 to e* level of pollution reduction MB > MC and the amount of welfare gain is the blue triangle. The correlation between production of coal and fuel based electricity and GHG emission is very high. So the regulations imposed on those will directly influence the amount of GHG emission. Regulations are unlikely to be lowest cost. For example, the cost of producing electricity by solar panel is higher compared to the cost of producing electricity by coal. Table 1 Source: But the price of coal and gas is also increasing which is lowering the gap of the costs. A renewable energy plant like solar panel can reliably serve for decades without emitting GHG at lowest maintenance cost. Under regulation, once firms meet the regulation target Q*, no incentive for further reduction. Reduction of pollution Cost per unit Q* Figure 5: Regulation and pollution reduction $ If regulations are not met Distributional effects Firms producing energy by using coal and fuel will lose their share in the market as their quantity decreases which will also reduce the amount of GHGs emission. The price of coal and fuel produced electricity will rise. The prices of products which use electricity a lot will also increase and influence the buyers of those goods. To increase the supply of renewable energy, more renewable energy plants will be built. It will increase the demand for renewable energy accessories like solar panel, wind turbine etc. So the suppliers of those inputs will gain. Initially at the market solution, amount of pollution reduction is zero. When the regulations are imposed the amount of pollution reduction increases to e*. The people who are polluted initially are gaining as the amount of pollution is decreasing. A tax on carbon emission A tax on the emitter of GHG can also be proposed to reduce GHG emission in Bangladesh. The tax will place an explicit additional cost on per unit emission. Before the tax, polluters emit GHG at zero marginal costs. The result is excess supply of GHG gas in the atmosphere leading towards its market failure. In presence of the tax, polluters emit GHG at a cost equal to tax rather than zero. This tax sets a price of GHG emission in the market where the market chooses the quantity of emission. Efficiency of carbon tax Price ($) KW electricity Quantity of electricity MSC= MPC + MEC S= MPC Regulatory Cost MC MB Welfare Gain 0 = em Reduction of Pollution MEC Govt. Revenue Figure 6: Market effects of tax e* Pt P Qt Qm MPB Pm Price and cost per unit pollution In figure 6, the production of electricity generates GHG emission by product and MEC curve shows this negative externality. Market equilibrium is at the intersection of MPC and MPB curve and the market price is Pm and quantity is Qm. But the social optimum is at the intersection of MSC and MPB curve. To attain the efficient level of Q, if a tax is imposed on Q by the amount of MEC then the level of output and price will be Qt and Pt respectively. The amount of electricity has decreased from Qm to Qt while price has increased from Pm to Pt. In the second part, initially at the market solution, reduction of pollution is 0. Due to the tax, the amount of pollution reduction increases from 0 to e* and the amount of welfare gain is the blue triangle. In the above figure, tax sets price, market chooses quantity. The efficiency of the programme depends on the ability of setting tax at a point that induces behavioural change. Distributional effects Firms producing output that by product emit GHG will lose their share in the market as their quantity decreases which will also reduce the amount of GHG emission. The price of electricity will rise which will also increase the prices of products which use electricity a lot in production. The consumers of those products will be worse off by paying higher prices. Moreover, more than 75 percent of Bangladeshs export revenue comes from Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector which consumes high electricity in the production process. A rise in electricity price led by the carbon tax will increase their production cost and reduce their competitiveness in the international market. There is a gain in government revenue by the yellow rectangle. A portion of the generated revenue may be used to compensate RMG producers by providing financial incentives. Most taxes create distortions but carbon tax corrects distortion. Carbon tax may yield double dividend one by reducing emission and another by financing the reductions of incentives. Carbon tax increases the amount of pollution reduction from 0 to e*. The people who were polluted initially are gaining as the amount of pollution is decreasing. Tax allows the producers to find least cost or cost effective way of reducing pollution. In figure 8, from 0 to e* level of pollution, tax is higher than MC of pollution reduction. Firms will find it profitable to reduce pollution by inventing new technology, investing in research and development rather than paying the tax. After e* level of pollution reduction, MC of pollution reduction is higher than the tax. So it will be cost effective for the firm to pay the tax. Price and cost per unit pollution Reduction of pollution T MC of reduction of pollution e* Figure 7: Pollution reduction efficiency 0 = em Tax In Bangladesh, relative elasticities of the products should be considered in setting the carbon tax because tax imposed on carbon passes to buyers and the share that will pass on depends on relative elasticities. In figure 8, the full burden of taxes passes on to consumers when elasticity is perfect. Price ($) KW electricity Quantity of electricity MSC= MPC + MEC S= MPC Regulatory Cost MSC=MPC+MEC MB Qt Quantity of electricity MEC Figure 8: Effects of tax on price depending on elasticities Qm Pt P Qt Qm MPC Pm Pt Pm Price ($) KW electricity A carbon tax will increase the cost of production for not only the products directly involve pollution e.g. electricity and transport but also for other products using electricity and petroleum inputs in production. As their production cost rise, their price will also rise. 31.5% population of Bangladesh live below the poverty line in 2010 . The carbon tax will increase the burden of poor people through increased price. To ameliorate the burden, financial assistance can be provided to the low-income households by using the tax revenue . In figure 9, we can see that as tax is imposed on electricity, the price of electricity increases so the budget line of the consumers will rotate inward and the consumer will move to a lower indifference curve ICt. The consumer can be compensated by an income subsidy which attains the same level of utility as before tax. Quantity of electricity IC ICt Quantity of X Figure 9: Income substitution to the consumers In 2009, 5 percent of total labour force of Bangladesh was unemployed . A carbon tax may deteriorate the scenario by occurring creative destruction associated with the jobs of carbon intensive products and production processes. But it will also create jobs for carbon extensive products and production processes. The net aggregative employment effect is close to zero. Recommendation Energy is the lifeblood of growing industry sector of Bangladesh. The intensity of current potential energy deficit can be substantially met by fuelling the growth of renewable energy. Different financial incentives can be offered for that purpose. For example, Bangladesh imports renewable accessories from abroad like solar panels from Germany. If import duties are removed from the accessories of solar panel, the cost of producing solar energy will decrease. Moreover, the poor people living in the rural areas having no electricity access also lack the capability to install renewable energy at household level. Government can provide them financial assistance in launching solar panel. Private investment should also be encouraged by creating proper financial incentives. For large scale investment Public Private Partnership (PPP) can be formed. RD for inventing renewable accessories at domestic level can reduce the production cost substantially. It may be difficult to enforce a carbon tax with underdeveloped institutions occurring higher administrative costs. In Bangladesh, the current tax structure lacks the capability and institutional feasibility to implement carbon tax. Before introducing carbon tax, the tax mechanism is needed to be restructured by developed institutional capability. In setting the tax main focus should be given to on electricity, gas, coal, some petroleum, fugitive emissions and some manufacturing while exclude agriculture, petroleum used by small vehicles and primary production and small business. Conclusion Although Bangladesh is attaining persistent economic growth, per capita energy consumption is still very low. So in future there will be increase in total energy production and consumption which in turn will increase the amount of carbon emission . A key way to transform into low carbon economy is imposing regulations on renewable energy target which can create two-fold benefits for Bangladesh- environmental and energy sufficiency. The reduction in GHG emission in the atmosphere will bring environmental improvements. Moreover, it will reduce the potential demand and supply gap of power and help to attain energy sufficiency. A carbon tax can also be charged by restructuring tax mechanism with substantial infrastructural improvements.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Impact Of Performance Management On Organizational Success Commerce Essay The concept of Performance Management is an important HRM process that provides the basis for improving and developing performance and is the part of the reward system in its most general sense. Performance management is a systematic process for improving organizational performance by developing the performance of individuals and teams. It is a means of getting better results by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards and competency requirements. Performance management is: A process for establishing a shared understanding about what is to be achieved and how it is to be achieved, and an approach to managing people that increases the probability of achieving success. (Weiss and Hartle, 1997) Performance management can be defined as a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors. (Armstrong and Baron, 1998) Performance management is all about improvement-synchronizing improvement to create value for and from customers with the result of economic value creation to stockholders and owners. The scope of performance management is obviously very broad because performance management must be viewed at an enterprise wide level. Organizations work more effectively when the goals and objectives of the organization, those of the smaller work units and the job responsibilities of each employee are all linked. When people in the organization understand how their work contributes to the success of the company, morale and productivity usually improve. The aim of all the parts of the company is the key to making these links clear to everyone. (Robert Bacal, 1999) Performance management has three distinct components defined by Banks and May, 1999 that are following: The first component consists of the definition of performance which includes organizational objectives and strategies, the second component is the actual measurement process itself and the third component is the communication between supervisor and subordinate about the extent to which individual behaviour fits with organizational expectations. Many of the components of performance management have been recommended for years as valuable to performance assessment. The importance of performance management is that the process combines most of these suggestions and adds the overlay of the strategic importance of various performance areas. (Frank Conte, 2009) RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES The objectives of a research project summarise what is to be achieved by the study. Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem. Properly formulated, specific objectives will facilitate the development of the research methodology and will help to orient the collection, analysis and utilisation of data. For example, realizing the two keywords performance management and organization success, it is important for this research study to have a particular organization that will focus in determining impact of performance management on McDonalds success. The research objectives are the goals to be achieved through the research. The Research should always be based on pre-decided questions. These questions help to focus on the research objectives. The first step in any research is defining the problems to be studied and the questions to be asked. (Campbell et al, 1982) A good research question defines the focus of your research project. It helps readers to know the specific subject matter you will be addressing. It can set boundaries to help you figure out where to go next and defines which data you need to collect and which methods you will use to access and analyse your documents (Hung Popp, 2009). Research question needs to be answerable by the kind of study researcher could actually conduct. The researcher doesnt want to pose a question that no feasible study could answer, either because the data that might answer them could not be obtained. (Maxwell, 2005) In the research the following questions will be answered: What is Performance Management? How is it achieved within McDonalds? What is meant by organizational success? How is success affected by the impact of performance management? What are the positive and negative impacts of performance management on an Organization? LITERATURE REVIEW Literature reviews or searches are essential steps in any research project. They often focus on articles in academic journals although textbooks may also be consulted. Performance management is a term, which is widely used in organizations and in particular by human resource professionals. A generic definition is that it is about applying processes, techniques and systems which maintain and improve individuals performance whilst simultaneously aiming to improve the performance of the organization. ( Hale Whitlam, 2000) From the HR field Armstrong and Baron highlight the importance of performance management being strategic, integrated (vertical, functional, HR integration and integration of individual needs), concerned with performance improvement and development. The principle of setting goals for individuals which are linked to organizational goals has a long history, evolving from merit rating to management-by-objectives (MBO- first coined by Peter Drucker in 1955), through Lockes Goal setting Theory of 1968 (Greenberg Baron, 2000) and finally to performance management, which became a recognised process in the 1980s (Armstrong Baron, 2002). Philpott and Sheppard (1992): The fundamental goal of performance management is to establish a culture in which individuals and groups take responsibility for the continuous improvement of business processes and for their own skills and contributions. As stated by Hartle (1995), Performance management should be integrated into the way the performance of the business is managed and it should link with the other key processes such as business strategy, employee development and total quality management. Performance staff members are at all times faced with the test of building agreement as to which workloads are supposed to be treated the best, and categorizing which workloads should be acceptable to experience a constrained setting. Once agreement is attained, the essential tools and measurements have got to be in place to decide if the prioritized workloads are meeting definite goals. Literature reviews of various academic journals and text books written by different authors are very helpful in conducting the research and supporting the research findings with the opinion and point of views of different authors. Performance management of employees is an important element of HR processes in the successful organizations (Burnes 2004). Performance management is a concept which emphasize on the continuous improvement on employees performance which has a good impact on the productivity of the organization in the long run. Effective performance management of employees is very helpful in order to achieve the strategic business objectives (Caldwell 2002). HR managers of successful organizations consider the implementation of performance management process essential for the business growth and development. It also helps the employees to improve and develop their own skills (Chen 2003). Most of the employees working in the organizations want to grow in their field; the supervisors during the performance management process can guide their subordinates which is helpful for them to overcome their professional weaknesses and improve their skill essential for their professional growth (Cherry 1993). The process suggests a complete career growth plan for the individuals by enhancing their performance in a professional business environment. However, it is important that performance management process should be implemented in a way that it should also improves the overall performance of the business by using different business processes like total quality management. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT A BRIEF OVERVIEW Performance Management is a method for creating a collective understanding regarding what is to be accomplished and how it is to be accomplished. It is an approach to supervising people that raise the likelihood of reaching success. The performance management process helps the managers and supervisors to provide feedback to the employees regarding their current performance at job and expected level of performance (Covey 1991). It provides clear direction to the employees about management expectations regarding their performance. The compensation and rewarding system is also established based on the performance of the employees over the period of time. It also assists the organizational leadership to identify the training needs of the organization and resolve the performance related issues. It provides opportunity to the managers to set the performance expectations and keep proper tracking of the employees performance (Doorewaard and Benschop 2003). The supervisors and managers can me asure the performance outcomes by comparing it with the performance expectation and performance appraisal can be done on the basis of this exercise. However, it is important that management should adopt the performance management practices that are consistent with the business operation requirements and objectives of the organization (Drumm 1999). An effective performance management process starts with defining the performance objectives which includes tasks and results which needs to be accomplished. It is important for the management to communicate the objectives to the employees in order to get the desired results (Francis 2003). Planning is also an important part of the performance management process. Planning includes making clear to the employee how they assist the organization to accomplish its objectives. Work together with the employees to clarify the performance standards and make sure that there is accountability at every stage. Employees should be made to comprehend the accountabilities and expectations regarding their job. Clarify the behaviours which are required from them and why. Explain them that they are accountable for taking an active role in running and judging their performance all through the year. Effective communication methods could be adopted for this purpose because if the objectives and tasks have not been communicated to the employees, they will not be able to perform according to the expectations. Once the tasks has been communicated and employees have started putting efforts in order to achieve those tasks then continuous performance reviews are very essential to advise employees about their ongoing performance and management expectations. Feedback is considered to be the most critical step in performance management process (Gibb 2001). Give frequent informal coaching. It involves acknowledging the good work that the employee is doing and helping out the employee to perform up to the mark. Discover ways through which the employee can grow and improve, and work together to generate development plans. Rapidly communicate novel opportunities and adjustments that affect the employees job. Name clear actions that the employee can implement so that suggestions offered are co ncrete. Formulate informal observation notes (perhaps on a calendar) whenever the employee performs a good job, make and implement development plan. These observations will assist supervisor while reviewing the performance of employee and filling the performance appraisal form. The supervisor can also note down praise or complaints from consumers concerning an employees work (Hale 2000). The manager and supervisor can use all saved notes regarding the employees performance and evaluate their performance on accountabilities and behaviours. The supervisor can invite the employee for feedback with reference to how they performed throughout the year. They may perhaps remind the supervisor of particular occasions of good performance or troubles outside their control that harm their capability to do their job well. After completion of the performance appraisal forms talk to employee about ratings and remarks. The most important step in this process is to recognize and reward the employees for their good performance because it will not only motivate employees to go extra mile to meet the goals but also increases the loyalty of the employees. In the modern business worlds loyalty of internal customers has been an important concern for the HR managers because if employees dont feel ownership of the work they will never put their 100% efforts for the success of the business (Huang 2001). Therefore, it is important for the organizational leadership to recognize the employees for their efforts and compensations should be made on the basis of employees performance and efforts because if employees are compensated and rewarded on performance basis then it will create an atmosphere of healthy competition within the organization essential for individual and organizational growth (Hunt 2003). Training and development of people is also an important step in performance management process which helps to improve the skills of the employees according to the job requirements (Hyland and Verreault 2003). The value of employees and their progress all the way through training and education are key features in shaping long-term profitability of a business. If you appoint good quality employees, it is likely to spend in the development of their skills as they can enhance the productivity. Training is mostly thought to be for new employees only which is a wrong perception because continuing training for existing employees facilitates them to adjust according to the varying job and business requirements because external environment is changing on continuous basis and it is essential to develop and train the employees according to the latest system and processes in order to increase the efficiency of the business and maintain the market share (Johnson and Scholes 2002). An important step in performance management process is to link the individual objectives with the business objectives and directing the efforts of the employees towards the achievement of those objectives. Here comes the role of the immediate supervisor of an employee who can direct the employees efforts towards accomplishment of specific objective and make the employee feel that his efforts are important for the growth and success of the business (Kane and Grant 1999). At the end of the process it is important to ensure that individual efforts should be directed towards meeting the organizational goals. It needs to be determined the contributions of each team towards tasks achievement. This is also helpful in defining the future human resource policies and strategies. These approaches may help to improve organizational performance depending on if they are put into practice at length and stay alert on managerial outcomes. Some of the following, e.g., organizational learning and knowledge management, might be interpreted more as movements than organization performance strategies because there are wide interpretations of the concepts, not all of which include focusing on achieving top-level organizational results (Liao 2005). Nevertheless, if these two notions are instilled from corner to corner of the organization and focus on organizational outcomes, they can add strongly to managerial performance. On the other hand, the Balanced Scorecard, which is purposely intended to be inclusive and focused on organizational results, will not develop performance if not applied from a strong design. THEORIES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT The fundamental structure of performance management is drawn from basic principles of well-established motivational and learning theories. These theories are underpinning of performance management in this research proposal. Goal theory was developed by Latham and Locke (1979) who highlights four mechanisms that connect goals to performance outcomes: They direct attention to priorities; They stimulate effort; They challenge people to bring their knowledge and skills to bear to increase their chances of success; The more challenging the goal, the more people will draw on their repertoire of skill. This theory underpins the emphasis in performance management on setting and agreeing objectives against which performance can be measured and managed. Control theory focuses attention on feedback as a means of shaping behaviour. As people receive feedback on their behaviour they appreciate the discrepancy between what they are doing and what they are expected to do and take corrective action to overcome the discrepancy. Feedback is recognized as a crucial part of performance management processes. Social cognitive theory was developed by Bandura (1986). It is based on his central concept of self-efficiency. This suggests that what people believe they can or cannot do powerfully impacts on their performance. Developing and strengthening positive self-belief in employees is therefore an important performance management objective. Clayton P. Alderfer (1972) devised ERG theory of human needs that explained three primary categories: Existence: This is akin to physiology and security needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs. It is concerned with fulfilment of basic requirements like food, shelter and clothing. Relatedness: It is related to needs like interpersonal relationships, acceptance as a member in a group/society and family relationships. Growth: This need involves people finding the opportunities to be what they are most fully and to become what they can. Expectancy theory developed by Porter and Lawler (1968) and it states that motivation will be high when people know what they have to do to get a reward, expect that they will be able to get the reward and expect that the reward will be worthwhile. So this theory leads to the performance management. Equity theory demonstrates the importance of perception in motivational behaviour of employees. The central theme of this theory is that satisfaction as a consequence of job performance is contingent upon the perception of equity. Stacy Adams (1965), who was given credit for development of this model, had brought recognition to the issue of equity in performance management. As we know literature review is the major part of the research project. So, it is necessary to know what has already been covered and the theories that have been developed to provide leads and reference points or as the basis for a grounded theory. METHODOLOGY Methodology usually refers to the general approaches to research, while method refers to techniques for gathering evidence (Gancian 1992). Therefore Methodology is a theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed (Harding 1987). Methodology is that how to apply the methods in the research. In my research, the methodology will be based on both, qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. The qualitative research aims to generate insights into situations and behaviour so that the meaning of what is happening can be understood and it is often a useful tool to discover research questions. Quantitative research is empirical-based on the collection of factual data that is measured and quantified and in other words it is the link between cause and effect. The proposed methodology will include both primary and secondary data collection techniques. Data collection techniques will include comprehensive database research, highlighted data, surveys, supplemental intervie ws. By using the case study in research, the concept will be better understand. The analysis of this research is qualitative which is used to highlight the different patterns and make it easier to understand. In this research, the case study will be on McDonalds. The structure of research is based on literature review. (Saunders et al 2008). INTERVIEWS: Interviews are an important research method. Interviews are basically qualitative but they can become more quantitative by the use of content analysis. The advantages of interviews are that they obtain information directly from the people involved in the area that is being researched and can provide insights into attitudes and perspectives. It gives opportunity to give information of research to interviewee so he/she can give relevant information (Zikmund, 2003). The interviewer is an integral part of the investigation. (Smith, 1983) SURVEYS: Surveys obtain information from a defined population of people. They provide more powerful data than other methods by using a combination of questionnaires and interviews and possibly focus groups. (Zikmund, 2006) states that the main purpose of survey in research is to collect primary data, which is assembled specifically for the research. CASE STUDY: A case study is a description or history of an event or sequence of events in a real life setting. Case study protocol sets out the objectives of the research, how the case study will support the achievement of those objectives, including the evidence required and how the work of producing the case study will be conducted. This methodology covers sources of evidence such as interviews, observations, documents and records. The use of multiple source of evidence, each with its strengths and weaknesses, is a key characteristics of case study research.(Gillham, 2000) DATA ANALYSIS: The data collected through interviews, surveys and case studies will be continuously analysed. Doing data collection and data analysis, according to Merriam (1998) is the right way to do it in qualitative research. It is helpful, as it enables the researcher to focus and shape the study as it proceeds, through consistent reflection on the data and attention to what the data are saying (Glesne, 1999).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Emil DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s Elementary Forms of Religious Life presents religion as a social phenomenon. Based on this idea, this essay will examine the role of religion and its influence on society. Durkheim defined religion as Ã¢â¬Å"a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden -- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.Ã¢â¬ 1 Hence DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis is on the function of religion as a unifier of individuals. In order to illustrate his theory of religion, Durkheim then introduces the Totemism of Australian aborigines as an example of fundamental and primitive religion. He then explains how religious belief and rituals evolve from society. If DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of religion is valid and if religion is in fact a social phenomenon, it then follows that religion has a function and is thus necessary for society. In other words, society creates religion, and neither can exist without the other. To summarize, religionÃ¢â¬â¢s function is to provide a community with a system of communal belief and activities which can be either functional or nonfunctional. A major role of religion in society is to promote social integration by strengthening the bonds between the individual and society. Durkheim emphasizes the communal aspect of religion, explaining how individual humans arrive at a common truth through communal activities. These activities integrate individuals into one single moral community. The individualÃ¢â¬â¢s faith is derived from the faith of the community, and the social structure shapes the content of religious beliefs and practices. Moreover, religion brings emotional security to individuals through communal living ... ...eligious Life explains how religious beliefs and practices unite practitioners into a single moral community and how unification is necessary for society. Religion is indeed functional in terms of providing order and a sense of belonging and identity to individuals. Although religion has been used to manipulate people throughout history and has not always affected societies in a positive way, it cannot be denied that it has great power to create in individuals a feeling of acceptance and social coherence. Works Cited Aldridge, Alan. Religion in the Contemporary World. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007. Print. Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Trans. Joseph W. Swain. 7th ed. London: Novello and Company Limited, 1971. Print. "Totemism." Britannica. Web. 19 Jan. 2010. 600496/totemism>.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Is It A Chocolate Sale...Or A Chocolate War..?? Chocolate "sale" or.....chocolate "war"? Although you describe this novel as being mainly based on simply the chocolate sale, the correct answer is more like the war of the chocolate sale. Already from the opening page of this exclusive book, where quarterback Jerry Renault is clobbered by a relentless defense, The Chocolate War is relentless in its portrayal of the vicious, sometimes violent world of high school. Through Jerry Renault, Robert Cormier who is the author of this book, thrusts us into the tormenting world of Trinity High, an all boys prep school. The Chocolate War isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all about the schoolwide chocolate sale Brother Leon presented to Trinity. The sale is part of the "war" going on through the school, but even before the sale was put out, problems already were occurring. The theme in their school was always "the students vs. the teachers". It then lowered down to "the Vigils vs. the teachers", particularly talking about Archie Castello, head and assigner of the Vigils, and Brother Leon, assistant headmaster of Trinity. These conflicts were already existing before the sale was given by Brother Leon. The characters are guided by peer pressures and the desire to please (or displease) their teachers. All of this is just a piece of the war at Trinity. The real chocolate war all started out just as Brother Leon announced and introduced the chocolate sale that all the students were supposed to participate in. Everyone was perfectly fine about the idea of the sale since it is held as one of the biggest fund-raisers all year to help the school. But once Leon changed around the expectations on the sale, conflicts around the school began to form. This year, Brother Leon wants the entire school to sell up to 20,000 boxes of chocolate, which means every single student is needed to sell 50 boxes each. Some of the students were excited and motivated to sell their set of chocolates, while some only sold them because they feared Brother Leon. Many of the students didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to sell the chocolates, but they were all afraid of what Brother Leon might do if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t involved in the fund-raiser. They all knew about the unexplained failures Leon gives out to the students in his class. The reasons of these FÃ¢â¬â¢s are usually something that is related to the sale. Archie Castel... ...ing match controlled by Archie. In order for him to get the chocolates sold, he needed to get money. Although Archie hates the sport boxing, and any other activities that involve violence, as smart as he was, he knew that all the students at Trinity would love it. Jerry Renault and Emile Janza were the two who were going to be the ones fighting in the match. Just about everyone in the school bought a raffle ticket, and the profit of the tickets was what Archie was planning to use to pay off the rest of the chocolates. This whole boxing match idea of ArchieÃ¢â¬â¢s definitely doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show much about the chocolate sale, but of its war. It showed the war against Brother Leon and Archie Castello. It showed the war against Leon and Jerry Renault, the war of Jerry vs. Emile Janza, and definitely the war of just the criticizing world of high school. The word "war" doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always have to be a physical war, as in deaths or literally fighting. It can mean internal war, where not a single show of violence has to be involved. This whole novel, The Chocolate War, takes the reader into the underworld of Trinity, where justice is ruled by just one powerful concept...intimidation. Is It A Chocolate Sale...Or A Chocolate War..?? Essay example -- Engli Is It A Chocolate Sale...Or A Chocolate War..?? Chocolate "sale" or.....chocolate "war"? Although you describe this novel as being mainly based on simply the chocolate sale, the correct answer is more like the war of the chocolate sale. Already from the opening page of this exclusive book, where quarterback Jerry Renault is clobbered by a relentless defense, The Chocolate War is relentless in its portrayal of the vicious, sometimes violent world of high school. Through Jerry Renault, Robert Cormier who is the author of this book, thrusts us into the tormenting world of Trinity High, an all boys prep school. The Chocolate War isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all about the schoolwide chocolate sale Brother Leon presented to Trinity. The sale is part of the "war" going on through the school, but even before the sale was put out, problems already were occurring. The theme in their school was always "the students vs. the teachers". It then lowered down to "the Vigils vs. the teachers", particularly talking about Archie Castello, head and assigner of the Vigils, and Brother Leon, assistant headmaster of Trinity. These conflicts were already existing before the sale was given by Brother Leon. The characters are guided by peer pressures and the desire to please (or displease) their teachers. All of this is just a piece of the war at Trinity. The real chocolate war all started out just as Brother Leon announced and introduced the chocolate sale that all the students were supposed to participate in. Everyone was perfectly fine about the idea of the sale since it is held as one of the biggest fund-raisers all year to help the school. But once Leon changed around the expectations on the sale, conflicts around the school began to form. This year, Brother Leon wants the entire school to sell up to 20,000 boxes of chocolate, which means every single student is needed to sell 50 boxes each. Some of the students were excited and motivated to sell their set of chocolates, while some only sold them because they feared Brother Leon. Many of the students didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to sell the chocolates, but they were all afraid of what Brother Leon might do if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t involved in the fund-raiser. They all knew about the unexplained failures Leon gives out to the students in his class. The reasons of these FÃ¢â¬â¢s are usually something that is related to the sale. Archie Castel... ...ing match controlled by Archie. In order for him to get the chocolates sold, he needed to get money. Although Archie hates the sport boxing, and any other activities that involve violence, as smart as he was, he knew that all the students at Trinity would love it. Jerry Renault and Emile Janza were the two who were going to be the ones fighting in the match. Just about everyone in the school bought a raffle ticket, and the profit of the tickets was what Archie was planning to use to pay off the rest of the chocolates. This whole boxing match idea of ArchieÃ¢â¬â¢s definitely doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show much about the chocolate sale, but of its war. It showed the war against Brother Leon and Archie Castello. It showed the war against Leon and Jerry Renault, the war of Jerry vs. Emile Janza, and definitely the war of just the criticizing world of high school. The word "war" doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always have to be a physical war, as in deaths or literally fighting. It can mean internal war, where not a single show of violence has to be involved. This whole novel, The Chocolate War, takes the reader into the underworld of Trinity, where justice is ruled by just one powerful concept...intimidation.
Social Environment and Its Effect On One's Life Social environment is influenced by one's power and wealth. This, in turn, determines success or failure in peoples' lives. If one were born with a "silver spoon" in his mouth, he would easily be able to attend a fancy school no matter how intelligent he is or have any luxury he wants just because of power and wealth. On the flip side, if one were born to a poor family in a bad neighborhood infested with violence and drugs, he would have a much smaller chance of succeeding in life, more especially, going to an upper-class school. It is hard for many poor to go to college because of such high tuition costs. Scholarships are available; but, even though one shows financial need, one still has to have a high grade point average and test scores. Even if one has a good mind, trying to study in a gang-ridden neighborhood with constant gunfire isn't easy. With both parents working two jobs, there isn't any parental guidance. Whereas, the affluent, even if busy or working, have the means to insure that their children are supervised and well taken care of. The rich also have the luxury of affording special tutors to help their children while other children are on their own. For example, there are three students, one from a clean, upper-class community, another from a small, middle-class suburb and the other from a graffiti-ridden slum. A... Social Environment And Its Effect On Ones Life Essay -- essays researc Social Environment and Its Effect On One's Life Social environment is influenced by one's power and wealth. This, in turn, determines success or failure in peoples' lives. If one were born with a "silver spoon" in his mouth, he would easily be able to attend a fancy school no matter how intelligent he is or have any luxury he wants just because of power and wealth. On the flip side, if one were born to a poor family in a bad neighborhood infested with violence and drugs, he would have a much smaller chance of succeeding in life, more especially, going to an upper-class school. It is hard for many poor to go to college because of such high tuition costs. Scholarships are available; but, even though one shows financial need, one still has to have a high grade point average and test scores. Even if one has a good mind, trying to study in a gang-ridden neighborhood with constant gunfire isn't easy. With both parents working two jobs, there isn't any parental guidance. Whereas, the affluent, even if busy or working, have the means to insure that their children are supervised and well taken care of. The rich also have the luxury of affording special tutors to help their children while other children are on their own. For example, there are three students, one from a clean, upper-class community, another from a small, middle-class suburb and the other from a graffiti-ridden slum. A...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
I was excited to the nerve that my father was finally in town and even more when he informed me that he has been given free tickets to the fifa world cup finals 2010 between Spain and Netherlands . i was absolutely thrilled to hear this from him. I am a huge Spain fan as I absolutely adore the club. I was very keyed up about watching Fabregas , David Villa and of course Torres in person as I am a big fan of these players. We took the flight to Johannesburg just the next morning as we had planned. We reached the marvelous place which looked even more marvelous during this FIFA season. We decided to tour the city and went to the nearest shopping mall Oriental Plaza. While on the way to the place my father informed me that this was the city where Mahatama Gandhi stayed 100 years ago. The mall was so named because it gives a taste of the orient in Africa. After this we headed to the stadium. My first impression when I arrived at the stadium was one of awe. A number of people outside the stadium appeared to be singing. I purchased a vuvuzela, got the Spanish flag painted on my face and then proceeded into the stadium and found my seat and felt content I had a good enough view of the pitch. The time for the match came and I grew extremely enthusiastic. The match had a large number of fouls, with both the teams playing equally rough. So much that although the goal scores remained 0-0, the yellow card scores kept raising. The match referee Howard Webb of England had a tough time and the final count was 14 yellow and 1 red card, Netherlands winning here 8-5. The score was 0-0 for the entire 90 minutes of the game and the first 30 minutes extra time as well, with Spain having 57% ball possession and 18 shots with 8 of them on target. Netherlands had 43% possession and 13 total shots with 5 on target. The bookings continued after the break . The dutch had a glorious chance to take the lead in the second half but Arjen Robben, comfortably his teamÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest attacking weapon, could find no way past Spain captain Iker Casillas. I was at the edge of my seat when in the 116th minute Cesc FabregasÃ¢â¬â¢s pass to the young midfielder Iniesta who struck it into the net making their captain and goal keeper Iker Casillas drop to the floor and cry out tears of joy after the final whistle. This made Spain the first team to win a World Cup after losing their opening game of the tournament. And once again the German octopus Paul AllenÃ¢â¬â¢s predictions came true. Then Spain was honoured with the 6. 175kg gold trophy. The Man of the Match was obvoiusly awarded to Andres Iniesta it was followed by a loud roar. And the prestigious Golden Glove Award to their captain and goalkeeper Iker Casillas. The Golden Shoe Award as well as the Best Young Player Award was given to Thomas Mueller of Germany and the Golden Ball was awarded to Diego Forlan of Uruguay.