Friday, November 15, 2019

Understanding Cultural Diversity In Humans Sociology Essay

Understanding Cultural Diversity In Humans Sociology Essay The three branches of human sciences (Social sciences), Sociology, Anthropology and Psychology are interlinked in that they try to describe the different areas of human life and their relationships to each other. They offer an explanation on human behavior and in the society they live. Furthermore, these social sciences provide essential skills in analyzing the intentions and behavior of individuals and groups they encounter. Individual identity is forged by ones culture, groups, and by institutional influences. Institutions such as families, schools and even churches greatly influence human beings yet these institutions are merely organizations whose aim is to develop the core social values of its constituents. In discussing cultural diversity on the perspectives of the three social sciences there is a need to understand the difference between culture and society. This is because the all the three disciplines explore culture and society to understand human behavior in depth. The term Culture has many different meanings, for some it is the appreciation of art, literature, music and food, while for others like biologists; they take it as a colony of microorganisms growing in a nutrient medium in a laboratory. However for social scientists, culture is the full range of learned human behavior patterns. Cultures are traditions and customs, transmitted through learning and adaptations. Children obtain such traditions by growing up in a certain society, through a process called enculturation. A culture results into a degree of uniformity in behavior and thought among the inhabitants of a particular society (Baugher et. al, 2000, p. 4). The terms culture and society are different as cultures are co nsidered to be complexes of learned behavior patterns and perceptions while society is a group of interacting organisms. Therefore this paper will critically analyze cultural diversity based on the three social sciences, evaluating the social sciences similarities and differences. Discussion Anthropological perspective of culture diversity When it comes to understanding diversity in cultures, the anthropological view can help humanity understand and appreciate the complexity of diverse cultures. This discipline involves the study of biological and cultural origins of the humans. The subject matter of anthropology is wide-ranging, including, fossil remains, non human primate anatomy and behavior, artifacts from past cultures, past and present languages, and all the prehistoric and contemporary cultures of the world. The subfield of cultural anthropology is the most commonly studied and useful in analyzing and interpreting the diverse cultures of the world. In recent years, recognition of the need for multicultural awareness, understanding, and skills has grown in our society. The aim is to achieve multicultural diversity competence, which is a term that refers to the ability to demonstrate respect and understanding, to communicate effectively, and to work with different cultural backgrounds (George Fischer, 1999, p. 71). These diversities in culture encompass differences in gender, race, ethnicity, religion, age, sexual orientation, social class and physical appearance. Misunderstandings and conflicts in the society are two major consequences of lack of awareness in the ever increasing cultural diversity. Cultural anthropology explains cultural diversity through aspects of social life such as material culture, social organizations, politics, economics, symbolism, change and development, ethnici ty and modern nation-state formation. In explaining and interpreting the diverse cultures, anthropology uses ethnography- describing particular cultures; and ethnology- comparing two or more cultures. In addition it incorporates the holistic approach in cultural studies by studying biological and cultural aspects of human behavior; encompassing the broadest possible time frame by looking at contemporary, historic and prehistoric societies; examining human culture in every part of the world; and studies many different aspects of human culture (George Fischer, 1999, p.68). Cultural diversity is relevant to a cultural approach in learning, in that learning and motivational styles and cross cultural pedagogical strategies assume attention to diversity in learner populations and pluralistic learning outcomes. The data, concepts and insights derived from the study of other cultures helps us meet our professional goals and lead more satisfying lives in a multicultural society. Moreover, the process of studying anthropology is also valuable because of the skills and competencies that it helps to develop. Activities such as taking courses about different cultures, participating in local internships and international organizations, living in the universitys international dormitory, and participating in study abroad programs all combine to provide students with valuable skills in understanding diverse cultures hence achieve multicultural diverse competence. There is a need to come up with a strategy to accept cultural diversity, for example, in the United states of America the freedom to pursue ones individual dream and fortunes in the united states has produced a widening gap between the haves and have-nots. According to Hutnyk, 2006, managing directors in United States of America made forty times as much compared to the average worker in 1973 and three hundred as much in 2004. At the same time, earnings of middle class were growing slightly and those of lower class were actually shrinking. This situation to a European means that the state is working against well being of the population, particularly in light of tax cuts during this period. Another instance is when expressing feelings of affection which is typical for all human. The manner in which the affection is expressed is cultural, the kiss is not universally accepted as a symbol of affection; some societies consider it suggestive of cannibalism. A basic anthropological strategy for understanding other cultures is to look at a cultural feature from within its original context rather than looking at it from the perspective of ones own culture; being inquisitive, non-judgmental, and open to new ways of thinking is vital in understanding other cultures; Balancing contradictory needs instead of trying to eliminate them; emphasize global team work; develop a cognitive complex which is made up of twin abilities of differentiating and integrating; and developing a personal acuity (Naylor, 1997, p. 157). The strategy will not only help you personally in understanding other cultures but assist you in integrating to any culture globally. Sociological perspective on Cultural Diversity Sociology is critical analysis of the society in which humans live. People who make sense of the social world-past, present and future- are referred to as sociologists (Anderson Taylor, 2005, p. 8). Sociologists research on social structures such as class, family, politics, social problems like drug abuse and crime all of which influence the society. Social interaction amongst humans is the basic sociological concept, because all humans and groups that make up a society socialize. Specialists who focus on particular details of specific interactions as they occur daily are called micro sociologists and those that focus on larger patterns of interactions amongst larger sections of the society such as state and economy are called macro sociologists. A society is rarely culturally uniform hence the result of different cultures. As societies develop and become more complex, different cultural traditions appear. The more complex the society, the more likely the culture will be internally varied and diverse. The causes of cultural changes in a society are cultural diffusion, innovation, and imposition of cultural change by outside world (Anderson Taylor, 2005, p. 72). Two concepts from sociology help in understanding complexity of culture in a given society, dominant culture and subcultures. Dominant culture is the culture of the most powerful group in the society. Although it is not the only culture in society, it is commonly referred to be the culture of a society, despite other cultures present. Subcultures on the other hand are cultures of groups whose values and norms of behavior differ from those of the dominant culture. Members of subcultures tend to interact frequently and share a common world view. Sociology stipulates that culture consists of both material objects and abstract thoughts and behavior. Several elements which sociologists consider in understanding culture diversity are language, norms, beliefs and values (Kaufman, 2004, p. 7). Language: Learning the language of a culture is essential to becoming part of a society. Language shapes culture as it provides the categories through which social reality is understood. This was proved by Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Worf in the 1950s through their theory called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The hypothesis states, it is not that you perceive something first and then think of how to express it, but that language itself determines what you think and perceive (Anderson Taylor, 2005, p. 83). In understanding cultural diversity language is seen to reflect the assumptions of a culture. This is seen and exemplified by: language affecting peoples perception of reality; Language reflecting the social and political status of different groups in society; Groups advocating changing language referring to them as a way of asserting positive group identity; The implications of language emerging from specific historical and cultural contexts; language distorting actual grou p experience; language shaping peoples perceptions of groups and events in society. Norms: They are specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation. Lack of norms in any society results in turmoil however, with established norms people would be able to act, behave and interact in a society properly. In the early years of sociology, William Graham Summer in 1906 identified two types of norms; folkways and mores. Folkways are general standards of behavior adhered to by a group, example wearing pants and not skirts for men. Mores are stricter mores which are seen to control moral and ethical behaviors such as injunctions, legal and religious. Beliefs: They are shared ideas people hold collectively within a given culture, and these beliefs are also the basis of many cultural norms and values, example in USA there is a widespread belief in God. Sociology study belief in a variety of ways, and each theoretical mentation provides different insights into the significance of beliefs for human society. Values: They are abstract standards in a society or group that defines the ideal principles of what is desirable and morally correct, for example in USA equality and freedom are important values which provide a general outline for behavior. Values provide values for behavior, but can also be sources of conflict like the political conflict over abortion. Understanding the four elements of sociology enables proper integration in any society. Integration into the society is achieved by respecting the diverse cultures that are found in a society. Sociology studies culture in a variety of ways, asking numerous questions about the relationship of culture to other social institutions and the role of culture in modern life. The new cultural perspective on culture according to Naylor, 1997, is that it is ephemeral, unpredictable and constantly changing; is a material manifestation of consumer-oriented society; and is best understood by analyzing its artifacts- books, films, television images. Psychological Perspective on Culture Diversity Social psychology a subfield of psychology has its origins in the early years of the twentieth century. Its findings do not necessarily concern human thinking throughout history but rather meet the requirements of our modern society. Social psychology research aims to capture the interplay between social thinking and socio-historical dynamics in order to understand how societies function and how culture is produced (Xenia, 2004, p. 13). Psychology is distinguished from neighboring social sciences through its emphasis on studying samples of organisms within controlled settings rather than focusing upon larger groups, organizations or nations. Psychologists test the specific results of changes in a controlled environment on the individual in that environment, but there are strongly set procedures through which organisms are tested psychometrically. There is a big debate in psychology and more generally in social sciences how to define culture. In some definitions the concept of culture includes behavior, in the sense that our behaviors are expressions of our culture. Other definitions emphasize that participating in a culture means having understanding of our world. However with trying to find a consensual definition of this concept, the main argument of researchers in psychology is to highlight how important it is to take into account the cultural context in which psychological studies were conducted (Kerr Tindale, 2011). They were right to point out that humans are linked to the social context in which they live, proving that psychological functioning and human behavior are universal and culture specific. Sharing a culture means that people have a common way of viewing their relationship with the social and physical environment; of communicating their thoughts and emotions; of prioritizing their activities; of dividing tasks and resources; of attributing values, honors, and power (Xenia, 2004, pp.17-18). When they do not share the above listed elements then culture diversity occurs from a psychological point of view. The people of diverse cultures are not like minded hence the question is, whether individuals from diverse cultures can coexist harmoniously in time space and under the same political and social organizations? The answer to this question provides the idea of how to cope with culture diversity. Various cultures flourish from the recognition that they represent a set of beliefs, modes of thinking and practices that are peculiar to them and different from others. Some cultures are more inclusive example western cultures, others refer to a small group of people for instance the Basque culture, but each one of them is important for its members because they represent the way they construct their social reality, and provides them with action alternatives. Conclusion Culture Diversity has been discussed using the three social science disciplines of Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Even though all of them have a similarity of trying to understand culture diversity in humans, they are different in terms of how they approach the study. Anthropology looks at culture diversity at the perspective of humanity, his origin and through aspects of social life such as ethnicity, symbolism, politics, race and so on. Anthropology explains that the origin of culture diversity is through mankind hence the concentration a human perspective. Sociology looks at the society which humans live so as to explain culture diversity. It states that elements such as language, beliefs, norms, and values are what bring about culture diversities. Psychology on the other hand analyses culture diversity with focus entirely on internal factors that influence individuals. Therefore the three social sciences provide an understanding of culture diversity and a basis of respec ting other cultures.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Progress, No Peace :: essays research papers

JERUSALEM -- As Secretary of State Colin L. Powell prepared to head home today without a formal cease-fire between Israelis and Palestinians, he said five days of talks with Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat brought some progress. Powell's ambitious effort to halt the bloody conflict between Israelis and Palestinians was scheduled to conclude today with a final meeting with Arafat. But few analysts expected a hard promise by Arafat to rein in armed militants and suicide bombers or a firm pledge from Israel to withdraw its troops quickly from recently occupied areas of the West Bank. As Powell pressed for progress toward a cease-fire, fast-moving Israeli armored columns swooped into several cities and villages on the West Bank in what appeared to be short-term operations Tuesday. In Tulkarem, troops arrested four Palestinians whom they accused of plotting a suicide bomb attack targeting today's Israel Independence Day celebrations. Officials offered no details. Tanks also rolled into three Palestinian suburbs of Jerusalem, with troops declaring a curfew and forcing thousands of residents to remain in their homes while searches were conducted for militants and suspected terrorists. The military confirmed the action, describing it as part of a high security alert surrounding the celebration of the Jewish state's 54th year. Palestinians called the latest raids a sign of arrogance. "These incursions are taking place even as Secretary Powell is in the country seeking solutions," said Ahmed Qureia, speaker of the Palestinian Parliament. "There must be an end to these incursions and a complete withdrawal from Palestinian villages and cities before there can be discussions of peace." The Israeli military, meanwhile, called its massive military campaign in the West Bank a success despite international condemnation of its aggressive charge into Palestinian-ruled territories, which has devastated several cities as well as the Jenin refugee camp. "The terrorist infrastructure has been dealt a severe blow," said Maj. Gen. Aharon Zeevi, director of military intelligence, describing Monday's capture of Arafat lieutenant Marwan Barghouti in the West Bank city of Ramallah as a major coup. "They can still make terror. But we have hit them hard. And the longer we have, the more we can hit them." Powell, who met with Sharon for the third time Tuesday night, was scheduled to make another passage to the besieged headquarters of Arafat in Ramallah today in one last bid to persuade the Palestinian leader to call for a suspension of the bloody 18-month uprising.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Labor union trend

I would begin this paper with a definition of what labor union is. According to my source, MSN Encarta, a labor union is an â€Å"association of workers that seeks to improve the economic and social well-being of its members through group action.† Basically, labor union is a group formed by workers to protect their rights and interests from the company from which they are a part. Of course the demand a union may ask may vary from one company to another. However, some of the usual line a union usually asks for its members includes provision of benefits for its members. So what does provision of benefits entail? From the word itself it aims to ensure benefits for its member. Such benefits may include assurance against unemployment of an employee, health benefits in case of sickness, insurance for injury and the like. In most countries, the state assures that the employees get such and such benefits. Another common theme from different unions is their way of negotiating for a higher salary once they find the need to have a higher salary from before. The term used for the said negotiation is collective bargaining. Another common term between unions is industrial action. In industrial action the workers may decide to organize strikes when the company they are in decides not to meet their demands. Moving on, there is said to be two different and thus at odds views in terms of trade unions. The first one is restrictive and thus the only members they accept are those whose line of work or expertise is the same as theirs. The second one aims to unite all workers to better the state of affairs on their working field. Of the two views I think that the second one is more likely to achieve their ends as compared to the first one. I said that because should a revolution be needed in order for things to happen their way then they can win by numbers alone. However, I think that the first one is more likely to share stronger ties than the second one on the basis that since they are restrictive and accept only their own, then understanding each other would be no hard task. Surely since they share more things in common then each one is more likely to understand each others pain and the drive to pursue their goals would be more fiery than that of the second one. Now, unions may seem to be very common nowadays but for many years unions are considered illegal in most countries. However, through time, regardless of the efforts put upon by employers in order for union organizations to fail, the voice of the workers prevailed. There are many unions formed nationwide and the question to be asked is whether global scale union differs in anyway from that of national scale. As an answer, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), founded by Samuel Gompers, aims to form a â€Å"pure and simple† unionism that gives prime importance to collective bargaining in order to reach their goals. The AFL is an example of a union in a nationwide scale. Now, union structures, politics and the like vary from one country to another. Unions may be organized into three kinds, craft unionism, general unionism, and industrial unionism. The said unions are usually separated into locals and then they would eventually be fused together into national federations. The said federations would then join the forces of international unions like the International Union Trade Confederation. I think one difference unions in national scale may have from those of international scale is that the demands of the unions in the national scale, though not completely alike in every way to that of other unions within a certain country, their differences is not so far-off to the point the they would fail to meet in the middle. Unions on the international scale on the other hand could be very different from country to country that the hope to reach a compromise may not be possible. For example, in Germany the only form of union which they consider to be legal are open shop unions wherein such is not the case on other countries. As another example, unions in the United States, unlike from other countries, gives primary importance for collective bargaining to better their salary or even to represent members of their unions should the management decides to violate one of their rights. On other countries the focus of their unions is different from that of the United States. However there are still global trade unions that aim to bridge the gap of different unions from one country to another, such unions is World Federation of Trade Unions. I think that the major role unions’ play in our society today is to protect the right of the workers. Unions assure that the workers are not cheated out of their salary, benefits and the like. I think it is a good thing that the workers decided to get together to get what is their due. Having successful unions on our society today made me think about the line Marx used decades ago, â€Å"all workers unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains†. Surely, what Marx said held true to our society today. And though the Marxists goal is not entirely complete I can say that at least some of their goal came into being such as the getting together of workers which can be seen in different kind of unions nowadays. However, there are still criticisms thrown upon labor unions. Some critics claim that the aim of unions is simply to benefit the workers inside the company even at the expense of the â€Å"outsider workers†, consumers, and the stockholders. These critics argue that unions put those who are unemployed more unlikely to get a job. As for my opinion, I believe that there is some truth in what these critics have in mind. However, such things could be resolved by peaceful talks regarding the things both parties supports. I also believe that the government can address such problems such as unemployment by assuring that every citizen gets employed without any discrimination. As to the fact that there are workers who cannot get the line of work they want then I say that such things are facts of life. Nobody really gets what s/he wants every time. I believe that if one works hard for that thing s/he wants then eventually s/he would be able to attain his or her goal. Thus, they should keep the blame away from labor unions regarding things of that sort. Reference: http://www.socialstudieshelp.com http://www.wikipedia.org

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on Erick Ericksom

Erikson, Erik (1902-1979) German-born American psychoanalyst best known for his work with children and adolescents. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, to Danish parents. As a youth, he was a student and teacher of art. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and also studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development. Following Erikson's graduation from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1933, the Nazis had just come to power in Germany, and he emigrated with his wife, first to Denmark and then to the United States, where he became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. Erikson held positions at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Judge Baker Guidance Center, and at Harvard's Medical School and Psychological Clinic, establishing a solid reputation as an outstanding clinician. In 1936, Erikson accepted a position at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Human Relations and taught at the Medical School. After spending a year observing children on a Sioux reservation in South Dakota, he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, where he was affiliated with the Institute of Child Welfare, and opened a private practice as well. While in California, Erikson also studied children of the Yurok Native American tribe. After publishing the book for which he is best known, Childhood and Society, in 1950, he left Berkeley to join the staff of the Austen Riggs Center, a prominent psychiatric treatment facility in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where he worked with emotionally troubled young people. In the 1960s, Erikson returned to Harvard as a professor of human development and remained at the university until his retirement in 1... Free Essays on Erick Ericksom Free Essays on Erick Ericksom Erikson, Erik (1902-1979) German-born American psychoanalyst best known for his work with children and adolescents. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, to Danish parents. As a youth, he was a student and teacher of art. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and also studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development. Following Erikson's graduation from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1933, the Nazis had just come to power in Germany, and he emigrated with his wife, first to Denmark and then to the United States, where he became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. Erikson held positions at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Judge Baker Guidance Center, and at Harvard's Medical School and Psychological Clinic, establishing a solid reputation as an outstanding clinician. In 1936, Erikson accepted a position at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Human Relations and taught at the Medical School. After spending a year observing children on a Sioux reservation in South Dakota, he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, where he was affiliated with the Institute of Child Welfare, and opened a private practice as well. While in California, Erikson also studied children of the Yurok Native American tribe. After publishing the book for which he is best known, Childhood and Society, in 1950, he left Berkeley to join the staff of the Austen Riggs Center, a prominent psychiatric treatment facility in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where he worked with emotionally troubled young people. In the 1960s, Erikson returned to Harvard as a professor of human development and remained at the university until his retirement in 1...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

First an Emoji, Now a Suffix

First an Emoji, Now a Suffix First an Emoji, Now a Suffix First an Emoji, Now a Suffix By Maeve Maddox A writer at Business Insider begins his report on Merriam-Webster’s â€Å"word of the year† by saying, Merriam-Websters word of the year  is actually a suffix: -ism. Actually, ism has been used as a noun in English since 1680, when a critic referred to Milton as â€Å"the great Hieroglyphick of Jesuitism, Puritanism, Quaquerism, and of all Isms from Schism.† As defined in the OED, an ism is â€Å"a form of doctrine, theory, or practice having, or claiming to have, a distinctive character or relation: chiefly used disparagingly, and sometimes with implied reference to schism.† However, it does seem that whoever chose ism as â€Å"word of the year† was thinking of it as a suffix and not as a word. The M-W spokesman explained that the suffix was proclaimed â€Å"word of the year† because several nouns ending in it were the object of dictionary searches during 2015: socialism, terrorism, fascism, racism, feminism. Even if the M-W selection is a suffix and not a word, I find it more acceptable than Oxford’s 2015 choice of an emoji. At least -ism is made up of letters and is pronounceable. The word ism was used in reference to religious creeds such as Methodism, Catholicism, and Arianism up until the early nineteenth century. Later it was used in reference to political or social thought. In a citation dated 1820, Thomas Carlyle includes a political creed, Whiggism, as an example of an ism. In 1864, an ism can be â€Å"an untried social theory.† In 1928, Shaw wrote of â€Å"proletarian Isms.† Unlike most other suffixes, -ism is easy to use as a noun because it can be equated with the nouns doctrine and creed. As a suffix, however, -ism creates nouns with varying meanings. Here are the different uses, based on the entry for -ism in the OED: 1. The suffix -ism is used to form a simple noun of action, usually formed from a verb in -ize. It names the process or the completed action. For example, baptism, criticism, exorcism, mechanism, and plagiarism. 2. The suffix -ism can be used to form nouns that express the action or conduct of a class of persons or the condition of a person or thing. For example, (action/conduct) heroism, patriotism, despotism; (condition) barbarism, orphanism, medievalism. 3. The suffix -ism forms nouns that name a system of theory or practice, religious, philosophical, political, social, etc. For example, Buddhism, Calvinism, Liberalism, and Protestantism. 4. The suffix -ism is used to form class names or descriptive terms for doctrines or principles. For example, altruism, atheism, deism, egotism, and jingoism. 5. The suffix -ism is used to form a term that denotes a peculiarity or characteristic, especially of language. For example, Americanism, Anglicism, Gallicism, Latinism, Scotticism, and Southernism. In recent years, as society has become deeply concerned with issues of discrimination, still another use has been found for the suffix -ism: a. forming nouns with the sense â€Å"belief in the superiority of one [class or group] over another.† For example, racism, sexism, speciesism, etc. b. forming nouns with the sense â€Å"discrimination or prejudice against on the basis of [some characteristic]. For example, ageism, bodyism, genderism, weightism, etc. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for â€Å"Food†10 Techniques for More Precise WritingContinue and "Continue on"

Monday, November 4, 2019

A Small Place By Jamaica Kincaid Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

A Small Place By Jamaica Kincaid - Essay Example We analyze every bit of her approach using careful consideration of possibilities and methods that she could have used. A unique way to create a personal touch in a narrative that is created to be a social bookmark, the author’s personal voice which keeps the reader acquainted with her thinking and experiences provide new reading experience indeed. Many argue that if she would have used a third person narrative, the book would have touched a higher realm of intellectual thinking and presentation of history. The process however, is reversed here. Both the fields of history and literature take a bow on this highly original creation by a native of Antigua and it is through the subjective narration of facts and happenings that the chapters in history come slowly forward to us. Using an objective narration would have only allowed the events to be chronologically set in a neutral backdrop, while her subjective narration instantly familiarizes the reader with the bias that she holds towards considering her country’s people more precious than tourists and outsiders. It may sound odd to the wors hipper of white power initially, but her conviction in the superiority of the natives and the inferiority and misery of the colonizers. The need to keep tourists reminded of the colonized past of Antigua has propelled the narrative to a direction wherein the writer is convinced that every white tourist that walks in her motherland is a descendent of the brutes of the past, who had initially walked in as a tourist but had eventually colonized the place and tried to turn it into England, the lad that they belonged to and adorned. History is replete with such incidences and if Jamaica has chosen to eye every tourist with the same perspective as the slaves saw the colonizers, then the entire picture, though brutal, still appears justified. We

Friday, November 1, 2019

The impact of privatisation on port efficiency Coursework

The impact of privatisation on port efficiency - Coursework Example For instance, at a macroeconomic level, port efficiency has been discovered to be an integral element in determining a country’s global competitiveness and trade prospects because it make exportation cheaper and thus, making the country’s products competitive in international markets (Culline, 2010; Park and De 2004). For this reason, governments are recognising the imperativeness of port efficiency both at the macro and micro economic levels and have started taking radical measures such as privatisation to improve their performance. This literature review examines the impact of privatisation on the efficiency of ports by examining empirical evidence and theoretical framework. In academic studies, the concept of efficiency has been used to evaluate the performance. In port literature, Wang and Knox (2011); Talley (2009) discusses three types of port efficiency, which include technical, overall and allocative efficiency. Technical efficiency is achieving the greatest productivity at the least cost possible while allocative efficiency is the production of goods and services that are demanded by customers. On the other hand, overall efficiency is the efficiency achieved when both allocative and technical efficiency are maximised and exist. For the purpose of this literature, all types of efficiency will be considered to determine the impact privatisation has on the efficiency of ports. According to Baird (2002), public ports are perceived to be inefficient because they are managed by government hierarchies and thus, suffer from disincentivisation, lack of clarity in operational responsibility and corporate objectives, goals displacement and excessive ministerial intervention (Demirel, Cullinane and Haralambides, 2011). Thus, as much as the role of the public in management of port facilities is inevitable and remains significant, it is imperative to recognise that privatisation of port facilities helps overcome the limitations of traditional,